Lecture 11: Coordinate Transformations, Recursion & Self-similarity I

Annoucements

Assignment 06 Due Friday MONDAY!!!

• tester later this week

Outline

1. Coordinates
2. Coordinate Transformations
3. Koch Curve Activity
4. SVG Groups and Coordinates

Goal

Generate self-similar graphical content

Homework 07: draw self-similar images

Coordinates

Cartessian Coordinates:

• associate each point in the plane with a pair of numbers: $A = (x, y)$

Screen vs Standard Coordinates

Screen coordinates:

• origin is upper left corner
• $x$ increases in right direction
• $y$ increases in downward direction

Standard coordinates:

• origin is somewhere
• depends on region we want to depict
• $x$ in right direction
• $y$ increases in upward direction

Today: use standard coordinates!

Points and Vectors

• a point is a location in the plane
• specified by a pair of numbers: coordinates
• a vectors is a displacement between points
• magnitude + direction
• arrows
• specified by a pair of numbers: components

Vector Operations

Vectors can be manipulated with algebraic operations:

• $(u_1, u_2) + (v_1, v_2) = (u_1 + v_1, u_2 + v_2)$
2. scalar multiplication:
• $c (u_1, u_2) = (c u_1, c u_2)$

Coordinates can be interpreted as vectors:

• associate the point $A = (x, y)$ with the vector $(x, y)$

Basic Coordinate Transformations

SVG supports transformation of elements (shapes, groups, etc)

• translate(tx, ty): take each vector $(a, b)$ and move it to $(a + t_x, b + t_y)$
• scale(s): take each vector $(a, b)$ and move it to $(s \cdot a, s \cdot b)$
• rotation(d): rotate each vector by $d$ degrees in the counter clockwise direction around the origin

For example:

<rect width="20" height="20" transform="translate(30, 40)"/>


Composing Transformations

Transformations can be composed:

• perform one transformation, then another, …
• transformations are applied
• in order “left to right”
• relative to previously transformations

Demo

• lec11-coordinate-transformations.zip

More Generally

A broad class of transformations are defined by:

1. how they transform the first standard basis vector $e_1 = (1, 0)$
2. how they transform the second standard basis vector $e_2 = (0, 1)$
3. how they transform the origin $(0, 0)$

Affine Transformations

Suppose a transformation maps:

• vector $(1, 0)$ to $(a, b)$
• vector $(0, 1)$ to $(c, d)$
• point $(0, 0)$ to $(e, f)$

To apply transformation to $(x, y)$:

1. write $(x, y) = x (1, 0) + y (0, 1)$
2. apply transformation to $(1, 0)$ and $(0, 1)$
3. get resulting value: $x (a, b) + y (c, d) = (ax + cy, bx + dy)$
4. add $(e, f)$ to result:

$(ax + cy + e, bx + dy + f)$

This is an affine transformation

matrix Transformations

In SVG you can perform an affine transformation

• vector $(1, 0)$ to $(a, b)$
• vector $(0, 1)$ to $(c, d)$
• point $(0, 0)$ to $(e, f)$

with

transform=matrix(a, b, c, d, e, f)


matrix transforms include all scale, translate, rotate transforms, and more!

Questions

1. What is the matrix equivalent of translate(20, 30)?

2. What is the matrix equivalent of scale(2)?

3. What is the matrix equivalent of rotate(90)?

Question

What is the matrix of this transformation?

Example: Koch Curve I

How did we make the snowflake fractal?

Step 1: define a basic shape

Example: Koch Curve II

How did we make the snowflake fractal?

Step 2: define sub-shapes for basic shape

Example: Koch Curve III

How did we make the snowflake fractal?

Step 3: recurse

Example: Koch Curve IV

How did we make the snowflake fractal?

Step 3: recurse

Observation

Each iteration draws a bunch of transformed copies of the original shape

Repetition and Transformation in SVG

1. Define the basic shape in a <defs> element

 <defs>
<rect id="my-rect" width="20" height="20"/>
</defs>

2. Draw basic shape with <use>, apply transform to transform the element

 <use href="#my-rect" transform="translate(20, 30)"/>


Now can re-use my-rect over and over again with different transformations

• of course, this can (should?) all be done with JavaScript

Activity

Draw two iterations of the Koch curve!

• lec11-koch-step.zip

Next Time

Make things easier!

• compose transformations by nesting group (<g>) elements
• program drawing recursively